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Publications Prof. Sawers


Haase, A., and R.G. Sawers (2023) A redox-active HybG-HypD scaffold complex is required for optimal ATPase activity during [NiFe]-hydrogenase maturation in Escherichia coli. FEBS Open Bio 13: 341-351. doi: 10.1002/2211-5463.13546

Sawers, R.G. (2023) Elucidating the physiology of a microbial cell: Neidhardt’s holy grail. Microbiology Microbiology (in press)
doi: 10.1111/mmi.15051

Kammel, M., and R.G. Sawers (2023) Cooperation between FocA and pyruvate formate-lyase maintains low intracellular formate levels during fermentative growth of Escherichia coli. Fermentation 9: 382.


Kammel, M., C. Pinske, and R.G. Sawers (2022) FocA and its central role in fine-tuning pH homeostasis of enterobacterial formate metabolism. Microbiology 168: 10. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.001253

Kammel, M., and R.G. Sawers (2022) Distinguishing functional from structural roles of conserved pore residues during formate translocation by the FocA anion channel. MicrobiologyOpen 11: e1312. doi: 10.1002/mbo3.1312

Kammel, M., O. Trebbin, and R.G. Sawers (2022) Interplay between the conserved pore residues Thr-91 and His-209 controls formate translocation through the FocA channel. Microbial Physiol. 32: 95-107. doi: 10.1159/000524454

Naumann, C., M. Heisters, W. Brandt, P. Janitza, C. Alfs, N. Tang, A. T. Nienguesso, J. Ziegler, R. Imre, K. Mechtler, Y. Dagdas, W. Hoehenwarter, G. Sawers, M. Quint, and S. Abel. (2022) Bacterial-type ferroxidase tunes iron-dependent phosphate sensing during Arabidopsis root development. Curr. Biol. 32: 2189-2205.e6.
doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2022.04.005

Kammel, M., and R.G. Sawers (2022) The autonomous glycyl radical protein GrcA restores activity to inactive full-length pyruvate formate-lyase in vivo J. Bacteriol. 204: e0007022.
doi: 10.1128/jb.00070-22

Haase, A., and R.G. Sawers (2022) Exchange of a single amino acid residue in the HybG chaperone allows maturation of all H2-activating [NiFe]-hydrogenases in Escherichia coli. Frontiers Microbiol. 13: 872581. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.872581

Kammel, M., and R.G. Sawers (2022) The FocA channel functions to maintain intracellular formate homeostasis during Escherichia coli fermentation. Microbiology 168: 4. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.001168

Sargent, F., and R.G. Sawers (2022) A paean to the ineffable Marjory Stephenson. Microbiology 168: 3. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.001160

Kammel, M., O. Trebbin, C. Pinske, and R.G. Sawers (2022) A single amino acid-exchange converts FocA into a unidirectional efflux channel for formate. Microbiology 168: 001132.
doi: 10.1099/mic.0.001132

Sawers, R.G. (2022) In Memoriam: Professor Armen Trchounian (1956-2020). Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 47: 7499-7503.


Arlt, C., K. Nutschan, A. Haase, C. Ihling, D. Tänzler, A. Sinz, and R.G. Sawers (2021) Native mass spectrometry identifies the HybG chaperone as carrier of the Fe(CN)2CO group during maturation of E. coli [NiFe]-hydrogenase 2. Sci Rep 11: 24362–12

Trchounian, K, H. Gevorgyan, R.G. Sawers, and A. Trchounian (2021) Interdependence of Escherichia coli formate dehydrogenase and hydrogen-producing hydrogenases during mixed carbon sources fermentation at different pHs. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 46: 5085-5099. doi: org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2020.11.082

Sawers, R.G. (2021) Setting the stage: Genes controlling mechanosensation and Ca2+-signalling in E. coli. J. Bacteriol. 203: e00595-20. doi: 10.1128/JB.00595-20

Falke, D., M. Fischer, C. Ihling, C. Hammerschmidt, A. Sinz, and R.G. Sawers (2021) Co-purification of nitrate reductase 1 with components of the cytochrome bcc-aa3 oxidase supercomplex from spores of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). FEBS Open Bio 11: 652-669. doi: 10.1002/2211-5463.13086

Greiner–Haas, F., M. von Bergen, G. Sawers, U. Lechner, and D. Türkowsky (2021) Changes of the proteome and acetylome during transition into the stationary phase in the organohalide-respiring Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain CBDB1. Microorganisms 9: 365. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9020365

Kammel, M., D. Hunger, and R.G. Sawers (2021) The soluble cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of the FocA channel gates bidirectional formate translocation. Mol. Microbiol. 115(4): 758-773. doi: 10.1111/mmi.14641


Schlaf, G., Bau, D., Horstmann, N., Sawers, R.G., Altermann, W. (2020). Solid phase-based cross-matching for solid organ transplantation: Currently out-of-stock but urgently required for improved allograft outcome. Histol Histopathol 18217. doi:10.14670/HH-18-217   

Karapetyan, L., Pinske, C., Sawers, R.G., Trchounian, A. & Trchounian, K. (2020) Influence of C4 -Dcu transporters on hydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase activities in stationary phase-grown fermenting Escherichia coli. IUBMB Life 72: 1680–1685

Benoit S.L., R.J. Maier, R.G. Sawers, and C. Greening (2020) Molecular hydrogen metabolism: a widespread trait of pathogenic bacteria and protists. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 84:100.


Nutschan, K., R.P. Golbik, and R.G. Sawers (2019) The iron-sulphur-containing HypC-HypD scaffold complex of the [NiFe]-hydrogenase maturation machinery is an ATPase. FEBS Open Bio 9:2072–2079. (doi: 10.1002/2211-5463.12743)

Pinske, C., C. Thomas, K. Nutschan, and R.G. Sawers (2019) Delimiting the function of the C-terminal extension of the Escherichia coli [NiFe]-hydrogenase 2 large-subunit precursor. Frontiers Microbiol. 10: 2223. (doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.02223)

Sawers R.G., M. Fischer, D. Falke (2019) Anaerobic nitrate respiration in the aerobe Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2): Helping maintain a proton gradient during dormancy. Environ. Microbiol. Rep. 11(5): 654-650. (doi: 10.1111/1758-2229.12781)

Fischer, M., D. Falke, J. Rönitz, A. Haase, T. Damelang, T. Pawlik, and R.G. Sawers (2019) Hypoxia-induced synthesis of respiratory nitrate reductase 2 of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) depends on the histidine kinase OsdK in mycelium but not in spores. Microbiology 165: 905-916. (doi: 10.1099/mic.0.000829)

Bau, D., R.G. Sawers, A. Wahle, W. Altermann, and G. Schlaf (2019) Solid phase-based cross-matching using the Luminex platform for solid organ allo-grafting: rather regression than progress in comparison to the ELISA-based precursor procedure. J. Clin. Cell Immunol. 10: 1000576. (doi: 10.4172/2155-9899. 1000576)

Budhraja, R., C. Ding, P. Walter, S. Wagner, T. Reemtsma, R.G. Sawers, and L. Adrian (2019) The impact of species, respiration type, growth phase and genetic inventory on absolute metal content of intact bacterial cells. Metallomics 11:925-935. (doi: 10.1039/c9mt00009g)

Falke, D., B. Biefel, A. Haase, S. Franke, M. Fischer, and R.G. Sawers (2019) Activity of spore-specific respiratory nitrate reductase 1 of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) requires a functional cytochrome bcc-aa3 oxidase supercomplex. J. Bacteriol. 201:e00104-19. (doi: 10.1128/JB.00104-19)


Falke, D., M. Fischer, B. Biefel, C. Ihling, C. Hammerschmidt, K. Reinefeld, A. Haase, Andrea Sinz, and R.G. Sawers (2018) Cytochrome bcc-aa3 oxidase supercomplexes in the aerobic respiratory chain of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 28:255-268. (doi: 10.1159/000496390)

Dragomirova, N., P. Rothe, S. Schwoch, S. Hartwig, C. Pinske, and R.G. Sawers (2018) Insights into the redox sensitivity of Chloroflexi Hup-hydrogenase derived from studies in Escherichia coli: Merits and pitfalls of heterologous NiFe-hydrogenase synthesis. Front. Microbiol. 9:2837.

Hakobyan, B., C. Pinske, R.G. Sawers, A. Trchounian, and K. Trchounian (2018) PH and a mixed carbon-substrate spectrum influence FocA- and FocB-dependent, formate-driven H2 production in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 365(21).

Fischer, M., D. Falke, C. Naujoks, and R.G. Sawers (2018) Cytochrome bd oxidase has an important role in sustaining growth and development of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) under oxygen-limiting conditions. J Bacteriol. 200(16):47.

Thomas, C., M. Waclawek, K. Nutschan, C. Pinske, and R.G. Sawers (2018) The extended C-terminal alpha-helix of the HypC chaperone restricts recognition of large subunit precursors by the Hyp-scaffold machinery during [NiFe]-hydrogenase maturation in Escherichia coli. J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 28(2): 87-97.

Schubert, T., L. Adrian, R.G. Sawers, and G. Diekert (2018) Organohalide respiratory chains: composition, topology, and key enzymes. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 94(4).

Sawers R.G. (2018) o-phthalate derived from plastics’ plasticizers and a bacterium’s solution to its anaerobic degradation. Mol. Microbiol. 108(6):595-600.


Hunger D., M. Röcker, D. Falke, H. Lilie, and R.G. Sawers (2017) The C-terminal six amino acids of the FNT channel FocA are required for formate translocation but not homopentamer integrity. Front Microbiol 8, 3633.

Hartwig S., N. Dragomirova, A. Kublik, D. Türkowsky, M. von Bergen, U. Lechner, L. Adrian, and R.G. Sawers (2017) A H2 -oxidizing, 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene-reducing multienzyme complex isolated from the obligately organohalide-respiring bacterium Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain CBDB1. Environ Microbiol Rep. doi:10.1111/1758-2229.12560   

Trchounian K., R.G. Sawers, and A. Trchounian (2017) Improving biohydrogen productivity by microbial dark- and photo-fermentations: Novel data and future approaches. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 80, 1201–1216.

Jaroschinsky M., C. Pinske, and R.G. Sawers (2017) Differential effects of isc operon mutations on the biosynthesis and activity of key anaerobic metalloenzymes in Escherichia coli. Microbiology (Reading, Engl) 163:878-890.

Sawers R.G., and C. Pinske (2017) “[NiFe]-Hydrogenase Assembly”, in ‘Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry, edited by Michael K. Johnson and Robert A. Scott. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 1-11.

Nies D.H., J. Covès, and R.G. Sawers (2017) Cross-talk between nickel and other metals in microbial systems. In Biological Chemistry of Nickel, Chapter 15. Royal Society of Chemistry, (print publication 04/04/2017) DOI:10.1039/9781788010580-00306.

Adamson H., M. Robinson, P.S. Bond, B. Soboh, K. Gillow, A.N. Simonov, D.M. Elton, A.M. Bond, R.G. Sawers, D.J. Gavaghan, and A. Parkin (2017) Analysis of HypD Disulfide Redox Chemistry via Optimization of Fourier Transformed ac Voltammetric Data. Analytical Chemistry 89:1565-1573


Kublik, A, D. Deobald, S. Hartwig, C.L. Schiffmann, A. Andrades, M. von Bergen, R.G. Sawers, and L. Adrian (2016) Identification of a multiprotein reductive dehalogenase complex in Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain CBDB1 suggests a protein-dependent respiratory electron transport chain obviating quinone involvement. Environ. Microbiol. 18: 3044-3056. doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.13200.

Sawers, R.G. (2016) Little red floaters: gas vesicles in an enterobacterium. Environ. Microbiol. 18:1091-1093. doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.13245.

Sawers, R.G., D. Falke, and M. Fischer (2016) Oxygen and nitrate respiration in Streotpmyces coelicolor A3(2). Adv. Microbial Physiol. 68: 1-40. doi: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2016.02.004.

Falke, D., C. Doberenz, D. Hunger, and R.G. Sawers (2016) The glycyl-radical enzyme 2-ketobutyrate formate-lyase, TdcE, interacts specifically with the formate-translocating FNT-channel protein FocA. Biochem. Biophys. Reports 6: 185–189. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrep.2016.04.005.

Falke, D., M. Fischer, and R.G. Sawers (2016) Phosphate- and oxygen-limitation induce respiratory nitrate reductase 3 synthesis in stationary-phase mycelium of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Microbiology 162: 1689-1697. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.000349.

Pinske, C., and R.G. Sawers (2016) Anaerobic formate and hydrogen metabolism. EcoSal Plus 2016 (posted 4th October 2016); doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.ESP-0011-2016.   

Sawers, R.G. (2016) Dormancy: Illuminating How a Microbial Sleeping Beauty Awakens. Curr. Biol. 26, R1139–R1141. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2016.08.039


Pinske, C., M. Jaroschinsky, S. Linek, C.L. Kelly, F. Sargent, and  R.G. Sawers (2015) Physiology and bioenergetics of [NiFe]-hydrogenase  2-catalyzed H2-consuming and H2-producing reactions in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 197: 296-306. doi: 10.1128/JB.02335-14.

Sawers, R.G. (2015) Of mothballs and old yellow enzymes. Mol Microbiol. 95: 157–161. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12874.

Sawers, R.G. (January 2015) Amino Acid Degradation. In: eLS. John  Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester. doi:  10.1002/9780470015902.a0001388.pub34.

Pinske, C., F. Sargent, and R.G. Sawers (2015) SlyD-dependent nickel  delivery limits maturation of [NiFe]-hydrogenases in late-stationary  phase Escherichia coli cells. Metallomics 7: 683-690. doi: 10.1039/c5mt00019j

Hartwig, S., C. Pinske, and R.G. Sawers (2015) Chromogenic assessment  of the three molybdo-selenoprotein formate dehydrogenases in Escherichia coli. Biochem. Biophys. Rep. 1: 62-67. doi:10.1016/j.bbrep.2015.03.006   

Stripp, S.T., U. Lindenstrauss, R.G. Sawers, and B. Soboh (2015)  Identification of an isothiocyanate on the HypEF complex suggests a  route for efficient cyanyl-group channeling during [NiFe]-hydrogenase  cofactor generation. PLoS One 10: e0133118. doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0133118.

Thomas, C., E. Muhr, R.G. Sawers (2015) Coordination of synthesis and  assembly of a modular membrane-associated [NiFe]-hydrogenase is  determined by cleavage of the C-terminal peptide. J. Bact. 197: 2989-2998. doi:10.1128/JB.00437-15.   


Trchounian, A. and R.G. Sawers (2014) Novel insights into the bioenergetics of mixed-acid fermentation: Can hydrogen and proton cycles combine to help maintain a proton motive force? IUBMB Life 66; 1-7. doi: 10.1002/iub.1236.

Pinske, C. and R.G. Sawers (2014) The importance of iron in the biosynthesis and assembly of [NiFe]-hydrogenases. Biomolecular Concepts 5; 55-70. doi: 10.1515/bmc-2014-0001.

Jaroschinsky, M., and R.G. Sawers (2014) Ferredoxin has a pivotal role in the biosynthesis of the hydrogen-oxidizing hydrogenases in Escherichia coli. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 39: 18533-18542.

Hunger, D., C. Doberenz, and R.G. Sawers (2014) Identification of key residues in the formate channel FocA that control import and export of formate. Biol. Chem. 395: 813-825. doi: 10.1515/hsz-2014-0154.

Doberenz, C., M. Zorn, D. Falke, D. Nannemann, D. Hunger, L. Beyer, C.H. Ihling, J. Meiler, A. Sinz, and R.G. Sawers (2014) Pyruvate formate-lyase interacts directly with the formate channel FocA to regulate formate translocation. J. Mol. Biol. 426: 2827–2839. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2014.05.023.

Fischer, M., D. Falke, and R.G. Sawers (2014) Determination of oxygen respiration rates in wetted developmentally arrested spores of Streptomyces species. Bio-protocol 4(12):   .

Fischer, M., D. Falke, and R.G. Sawers (2014) Rapid nitrate reduction assay with intact microbial cells or spores. Bio-protocol 4(12):   .

Stripp, S.T., U. Lindenstrauss, C. Granich, R.G. Sawers, and B. Soboh (2014) The Influence of oxygen on [NiFe]-hydrogenase cofactor biosynthesis and
 how ligation of carbon monoxide precedes cyanation. PLoS One 9: e107488. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0107488.

Fischer, M., D. Falke, T. Pawlik, and R.G. Sawers (2014) Oxygen-dependent control of respiratory nitrate reduction in mycelium of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). J. Bacteriol. 196: 4152–4162. doi: 10.1128/JB.02202-14.

Zorn, M., C.H. Ihling, R. Golbik, R.G. Sawers, and A. Sinz (2014) Mapping cell envelope and periplasm protein interactions of Escherichia coli respiratory formate dehydrogenases by chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry. J. Proteome Res. 13: 5524-5535. doi: 10.1021/pr5004906.


Bräuer, L., M. Schicht, D. Worlitzsch, T. Bensel, R.G. Sawers and F. Paulsen (2013) Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa express and secrete human surfactant proteins. PLoS One 8: e53705. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053705.

Beyer, L., C. Doberenz, D. Falke, D. Hunger, B Suppmann and R.G. Sawers (2013) Coordinating FocA and pyruvate formate-lyase synthesis in Escherichia coli: preferential translocation of formate over other mixed-acid fermentation products. J. Bacteriol. 195: 1428-1435. doi: 10.1128/JB.02166-12.

Trchounian, K., B. Soboh, R.G. Sawers, A. Trchounian (2013) Contribution of hydrogenase 2 to stationary phase H2 production by Escherichia coli during fermentation of glycerol. Cell. Biochem. Biophys. 66: 103-108. doi: 10.1007/s12013-012-9458-7.

Wagner A., L. Segler, S. Kleinsteuber, G. Sawers, H. Smidt and U. Lechner (2013) Regulation of reductive dehalogenase gene transcription in Dehalococcoides mccartyi. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci. 368: 20120317. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2012.0317.

Zorn, M., C.H. Ihling, R. Golbik, R.G. Sawers and A. Sinz (2013) Selective selC-independent selenocysteine incorporation into formate dehydrogenases. PLoS One 8: e61913. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061913.

Pinske, C., M. Jaroschinsky, and R.G. Sawers (2013) Levels of control exerted by the Isc iron-sulphur cluster system on the biosynthesis of the formate hydrogenlyase complex. Microbiology 159: 1179-1189. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.066142-0.

Stripp, S.T., B. Soboh, U. Lindenstrauss, M. Braussemann, M. Herzberg, D. H. Nies, R.G. Sawers, and J. Heberle (2013) HypD is the scaffold protein for Fe–(CN)2CO cofactor assembly in [NiFe]–hydrogenase maturation. Biochemistry 52: 3289–3296. doi: 10.1021/bi400302v.

Fischer, M. and R.G. Sawers (2013) A universally applicable and rapid method for measuring growth of Streptomyces and other filamentous microorganisms by methylene blue adsorption/desorption. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79: 4499-4502. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00778-13.

Soboh, B.,  S.T. Stripp, C. Bielak, U. Lindenstrauß, M. Braussemann, M. Javaid, M. Hallensleben, C. Granich, M. Herzberg, J. Heberle and R.G. Sawers (2013) The [NiFe]-hydrogenase accessory chaperones HypC and HybG of Escherichia coli are iron- and carbon dioxide-binding proteins. FEBS Lett. 587: 2512–2516. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2013.06.055.

Fischer M., D. Falke, and R.G. Sawers (2013) A respiratory nitrate reductase active exclusively in resting spores of the obligate aerobe Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Mol. Microbiol. 89: 1259-1273. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12344.

Poladyan, A., K. Trchounian, R.G. Sawers, and A. Trchounian (2013) Hydrogen-oxidizing hydrogenases 1 and 2 of Escherichia coli regulate the onset of hydrogen evolution and ATPase activity, respectively, during glucose fermentation at alkaline pH. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 348: 143-148. doi: 10.1111/1574-6968.12281.

Sawers R.G. (2013) Nickel in Bacteria and Archaea. Chapter 86 In: Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins. (Kretsinger, R. H., Uversky, V. N. and Permyakov, E. A., Eds.) Springer, Heidelberg. pp. 1490-1496. ISBN 978-1-4614-1532-9.

Soboh, B. and R.G. Sawers (2013) [NiFe]-hydrogenase cofactor assembly. In: Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioorganic Chemistry – Metals in Cells, Chapter eibc2154. ISBN: 9781119951438. doi: 10.1002/9781119951438.eibc2154.


Pinske, C. and R.G. Sawers (2012) The A-type carrier protein ErpA is essential for formation of an active formate-nitrate respiratory pathway in Escherichia coli K-12. J. Bacteriol. 194: 346-353. doi: 10.1128/ JB.06024-11

Pinske, C, J.S. McDowall, F. Sargent and R.G. Sawers (2012) Analysis of hydrogenase 1 levels reveals an intimate link between carbon and hydrogen metabolism in Escherichia coli K-12. Microbiology 158: 856-868. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.056622-0

Pinske, C, and R.G. Sawers (2012) Delivery of iron-sulfur clusters to the hydrogen-oxidizing [NiFe]-hydrogenases in Escherichia coli requires the A-type carrier proteins ErpA and IscA. PLoS ONE 7: e31755. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031755   

Trchounian, K., C. Pinske, R.G. Sawers and Trchounian, A. (2012) Characterization of Escherichia coli NiFe-hydrogenase distribution during fermentative growth at different pHs. Cell Biochem. Biophys. 62: 433-440. doi: 10.1007/s12013-011-9325-y

Kirchberg, J., D. Büttner, B. Thiemer and R.G. Sawers (2012) Aconitase B is required for optimal growth of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria in pepper plants. PLoS ONE 7: e34941. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034941   

Fischer, M., C. Schmidt, D. Falke and R.G. Sawers (2012) The terminal reduction reactions of nitrate and sulphate assimilation in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2): identification of the genes encoding the nitrite and sulphite reductases. Res. Microbiol. 163: 340-348. doi: 10.1016/j.resmic.2012.05.004

Soboh, B., M. Kuhns, M. Braussemann, M. Waclawek, E. Muhr, A.J. Pierik and R.G. Sawers (2012) Evidence for an oxygen-sensitive iron-sulfur cluster in an immature large subunit species of Escherichia coli [NiFe]-hydrogenase 2. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 424: 158-163. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.06.096

Pinske, P., M. Jaroschinsky, F. Sargent, and G. Sawers (2012) Zymographic differentiation of [NiFe]-hydrogenases 1, 2 and 3 of Escherichia coli K-12. BMC Microbiol. 12:134. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-12-134

Soboh, B., S. Stripp, E. Muhr, C. Granich, M. Braussemann, M. Herzberg, J. Heberle and R.G. Sawers (2012) [NiFe]-hydrogenase maturation: isolation of a HypC-HypD complex carrying diatomic CO and CN- ligands. FEBS Lett. 586: 3882-3887. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2012.09.019

Sawers R.G. (2012) Hydrogenase maturation endopeptidase. Chapter 70 In: Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes. 3rd Edition. (Eds. Rawlings, N. and Salvesen, G.) Academic Press, ISBN: 9780123822192


Pinske, C., S. Krüger, B. Soboh, C. Ihling, M. Kuhns, M. Braussemann, M. Jaroschinsky, C. Sauer, F. Sargent, A. Sinz, and R.G. Sawers (2011) Efficient electron transfer from hydrogen to benzyl viologen by the [NiFe]-hydrogenases of Escherichia coli is dependent on the coexpression of the iron-sulphur cluster-containing small subunit. Arch. Microbiol. 193: 893-903.

Pinske, C., M. Bönn, S. Krüger, U. Lindenstrauß, and R.G. Sawers (2011) Metabolic deficiences revealed in the biotechnologically important model bacterium Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). PLoS ONE 6: e22830.

Soboh B, C. Pinske, M. Kuhns, M. Waclawek, C. Ihling, K. Trchounian, A. Trchounian, A. Sinz and G. Sawers (2011) The respiratory molybdo-selenoprotein formate dehydrogenases of Escherichia coli have hydrogen: benzyl viologen oxidoreductase activity. BMC Microbiol. 11: 173.

Pinske, C. and G. Sawers (2011) Iron restriction induces preferential down-regulation of H2-consuming over H2-evolving reactions during fermentative growth of Escherichia coli. BMC Microbiol. 11: 196.

Petkun, S., R. Shi, Y. Li, A. Asinas, C. Munger, M. Waclawek, B. Soboh, R.G. Sawers and M. Cygler (2011) Structure of hydrogenase maturation protein HypF with reaction intermediates shows two active sites. Structure 19: 1773-1783.

Trchounian, K., C. Pinske, R.G. Sawers and Trchounian, A. (2011) Dependence on the F0F1-ATP synthase for the activities of the hydrogen-oxidizing hydrogenases 1 and 2 during glucose and glycerol fermentation at high and low pH in Escherichia coli. J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 43: 645-650.


Bekker, M., S. Alexeeva, W. Laan, G. Sawers, J. Teixeira de Mattos, and K. Hellingwerf (2010) The ArcAB two-component system of Escherichia coli is regulated by the redox state of both the ubiquinone and the menaquinone pool. J. Bact. 192:746-754.

Falke, D., K. Schulz, C. Doberenz, L. Beyer, H. Lilie, B. Thiemer and R.G. Sawers (2010) Unexpected oligomeric structure of the FocA formate channel of Escherichia coli: A paradigm for the Formate-Nitrite-Transporter family of integral membrane proteins. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 303: 69-75.

Harris, R.L., S. Barbieri, K. Papraskevopoulos, L.M. Murphy, R.R. Eady, S.S. Hasnain and R.G. Sawers (2010) Characterisation of cycP gene expression in Achromobacter xylosoxidans NCIMB 11015 and high-level heterologous synthesis of cytochrome c' in Escherichia coli. J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 18:102–108.


Sawers, R.G. (June 2009) Amino Acid Degradation. In: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences (ELS). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester. DOI: 10.1002/ 9780470015902.a0001388.pub2


Barbieri, S., L.M. Murphy, R.G. Sawers, R.R. Eady and S.S. Hasnain (2008) Modulation of NO-binding to cytochrome c’ by distal and proximal heme pocket residues. J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 13: 531-540.


Forzi, L. and R.G. Sawers (2007) Maturation of [NiFe]-hydrogenases in Escherichia coli. BioMetals 20: 567-578.

Baker-Austin, C., M. Dopson, M. Wexler, R.G. Sawers and P.L. Bond (2007) Extreme arsenic resistance by the acidophilic archaeon Ferroplasma acidarmanus. Extremophiles 11: 425-434.

Paraskevopoulos, K., M.A. Hough, R.G. Sawers, R.R. Eady and S.S. Hasnain (2007) The structure of Met144Leu copper nitrite reductase from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans provides a first glimpse of a protein-protein complex with azurin II. J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 12: 789-796.

Burman, J.D., C.E.M. Stevenson, R.G. Sawers and D.M. Lawson (2007) The crystal structure of Escherichia coli TdcF, a member of the highly conserved YjgF/YER057c/UK114 family. BMC Struct. Biol. 7: 30.

McAnulla, C., A. Edwards, M. Sanchez-Contreras, R.G. Sawers and J.A. Downie (2007) Quorum-sensing-regulated transcriptional initiation of plasmid transfer and replication genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae. Microbiology 153: 2074-2082.

Forzi, L., P. Hellwig, R.K. Thauer and R.G. Sawers (2007) The CO and CN ligands to the Fe atom in [NiFe]-hydrogenase-2 of Escherichia coli have different metabolic origins. FEBS Lett 581: 3317-3321.

van Keulen, G., J. Alderson, J. White and R.G. Sawers (2007) The obligate aerobic actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) survives extended periods of anaerobic stress. Env. Microbiol. 9: 3143-3149.


Ellington, M.J.K., W.L. Fosdike, R.G. Sawers, D.J. Richardson and S.J. Ferguson (2006) Regulation of the nap operon encoding the periplasmic nitrate reductase of Paracoccus pantotrophus: delineation of sequences required for redox control. Arch. Microbiol. 184: 298-304.

Reyes-Ramírez, F. and R.G. Sawers (2006) Aerobic activation of the anaerobically inducible Escherichia coli focA-pfl operon transcription by FNR. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 255: 262-267.

Todd, J.D., G. Sawers, D.A. Rodionov and A.W.B. Johnston (2006) The Rhizobium leguminosarum regulator IrrA affects the transcription of a wide range of genes in response to Fe availability. Mol. Genet. Genom. 275: 564-577.

Sawers, R.G. (2006) Differential turnover of the multiple processed transcripts of the Escherichia coli focA-pflB operon. Microbiology 152: 2197-2205.

Harris, R.L., R.R. Eady, S.S. Hasnain and R.G. Sawers (2006) Coordinate synthesis of azurin I and copper nitrite reductase in Alcaligenes xylosoxidans during denitrification. Arch. Microbiol. 186: 241-249.

Paraskevopoulos, K., S.V. Antonyuk, R.G. Sawers, R.R. Eady and S.S. Hasnain (2006) Insight into catalysis of nitrous oxide reductase from high resolution structures of resting and inhibitor-bound enzyme from Achromobacter cycloclastes. J. Mol. Biol. 362: 55-65.


Sawers, R.G. (2005) Formate and its role in hydrogen production in E. coli. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 33: 42-46.

Harris, R.L., M. Prudencio, S.S. Hasnain, R.R. Eady and R.G. Sawers (2005) Heterologous metalloprotein biosynthesis in Escherichia coli: conditions for the overproduction of functional copper-containing nitrite reductase and azurin from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans. J. Syc. Rad 12: 13-18.

van Keulen, G., J. Alderson, J. White and R.G. Sawers (2005) Nitrate reduction in the actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 33: 210-212.

Tard, C, X. Liu, S.K. Ibrahim, M. Bruschi, L. De Gioia, S.C. Davies, X. Yang, L.-S, Wang, G. Sawers and C.J. Pickett (2005) Synthesis of the H-cluster framework of iron-only hydrogenase. Nature 433: 610-613.

Sawers, R.G. (2005) Expression of fnr is constrained by an upstream IS5 insertion in certain Escherichia coli K-12 strains. J. Bacteriol. 187: 2609-2617.

Todd, J.D., G. Sawers and A.W.B. Johnston (2005) Proteomic analysis reveals the wide-ranging effects of the novel iron-responsive regulator RirA in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. Mol. Genet. Genom. 273: 197-206.

Sawers, R.G. (2005) Transcript analysis of Escherichia coli K-12 insertion element IS5. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 244: 397-401.

Hough, M.A., M.J. Ellis, S. Antonyuk, R.W. Strange, G. Sawers, R.R. Eady and S.S. Hasnain (2005) High resolution structural studies of mutants provide insights into catalysis and electron transfer processes in copper nitrite reductase. J. Mol. Biol. 350: 300-309.

van Keulen, G., D.A. Hopwood, L. Dijkhuizen and R.G. Sawers (2005) Gas vesicles in actinomycetes: old buoys in novel habitats? Trends Microbiol. 13: 350-354.

Baker-Austin, C., M. Dopson, M. Wexler, R.G. Sawers and P.L. Bond (2005) The molecular basis of extreme copper resistance in the acidophilic archaeon Ferroplasma acidarmanus Microbiology 151: 2551-2561.

Antonyuk, S., R.W. Strange, R.R. Eady, G. Sawers,and S.S. Hasnain (2005) Atomic resolution structures of resting state, substrate- and product-complexed Cu nitrite reductase provide insight into catalytic mechanism. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102: 12041-12046.

Sawers, R.G. (2005) Evidence for novel processing of the anaerobically inducible dicistronic focA-pfl mRNA transcript in Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 58: 1441-1453.

Diaz-Mireles, E., M. Wexler, J.D. Todd, D. Bellini, A.W.B. Johnston and R.G. Sawers (2005) The manganese-responsive repressor Mur of Rhizobium leguminosarum is a member of the Fur-superfamily that recognises an unusual operator sequence. Microbiology 151: 4071-4078.


Sawers, R.G., J. Alderson and J. White (2004) Streptomycetes and anaerobic stress survival. Microbiol. Austral. 25: 26-27.

Diaz-Mireles, E., M. Wexler, G. Sawers, D. Bellini, J.D. Todd and A.W.B. Johnston (2004) The Fur-like protein Mur of Rhizobium leguminosarum is a Mn2+-responsive transcriptional regulator. Microbiology 150: 1447-1456.

Farver, O., R.R. Eady, G. Sawers, M. Prudencio and I. Pecht (2004) Met144Ala mutation of the copper-containing nitrite reductase from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans reverses the intramolecular electron transfer. FEBS Lett. 561: 173-176.

Sawers, R.G. and M.M. Nakano (2004) Redox(Oxygen)-Dependent Gene Regulation in Facultative Anaerobes. In Strict and Facultative Anaerobes: Medical and Environmental Aspects. eds M.M Nakano, P. Zuber and A.L. Sonnenschein pp. 67-86, Horizon Bioscience.

Punginelli, C., B. Ize, N.R. Stanley, V. Stewart, G. Sawers, B.C. Berks and T. Palmer (2004) mRNA Secondary Structure Modulates Translation of Tat-Dependent Formate Dehydrogenase-N. J. Bacteriol. 186: 6311-6315.

Burman, J.D., R.L. Harris, K.A. Hauton, D.M. Lawson and R.G. Sawers (2004) The iron-sulphur cluster of the Escherichia coli L-serine dehydratase TdcG is essential for catalysis. FEBS Lett. 576: 442-444.

Ellis, M.J, S.V. Antonyuk, R.W. Strange, G. Sawers, R.R. Eady and S.S. Hasnain (2004) Observation of an unprecedented Cu bis-His site: Crystal Structure of the H129V Mutant of Nitrite Reductase. Inorg. Chem. 43: 7591-7593.

Sawers, R.G. and D.P. Clark (2004) Fermentative pyruvate and acetyl CoA metabolism. July 2004, posting date. Chapter 3.5.3. In R. Curtiss III (Editor in Chief), EcoSal--Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology. [Online.]   . ASM Press, Washington, D.C.

Sawers, R.G., M. Blokesch and A. Böck (2004) Anaerobic formate and hydrogen metabolism. September 2004, posting date. Chapter 3.5.4. In R. Curtiss III (Editor in Chief), EcoSal--Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology. [Online.]   . ASM Press, Washington, D.C.

Yeoman. K.H., A.R.J. Curson, J.D. Todd, G. Sawers and A.W.B. Johnston (2004) Evidence that the Rhizobium regulatory protein RirA binds to cis-acting Iron-Responsive Operators (IROs) at promoters of some Fe-regulated genes. Microbiology 150: 4065-4074.

Richardson, D.J., G. Sawers,and R.J.M. van Spanning (2004) The bioenergetics of periplasmic electron transport systems in bacteria. Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry (Eds. W.J. Lennarz and M.D. Lane), Elsevier Scientific Press. 3: 231-238.

Barrett, M.L., R.L. Harris, S. Antonyuk, M.A. Hough, M.J. Ellis, G. Sawers, R.R. Eady and S.S. Hasnain (2004) Insights into redox partner interactions and substrate binding in nitrite reductase from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans:  Crystal structures of the Trp138His and His313Gln mutants. Biochemistry 43: 16311-16319.


Wexler, M., J.D. Todd, O. Kolade, D. Bellini, A.M. Hemmings, G. Sawers and A.W.B. Johnston (2003) Fur is not the global regulator of iron uptake genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum. Microbiology  149: 1357-1365.

Ellis, M.J., F. E. Dodd, G. Sawers, R.R. Eady and S.S. Hasnain (2003) Atomic resolution structures of native copper nitrite reductase and the active site mutant Asp92Glu. J. Mol. Biol. 328: 429-438.

Burman, J.D., C.E.M. Stevenson, K.A. Hauton, G. Sawers and D. Lawson (2003) Crystallisation and preliminary X-ray analysis of the E. coli hypothetical protein TdcF. Acta Crystallogr. D59: 1076-1078.

Ellington, M.J.K., G. Sawers, H.J. Sears, S. Spiro, D.J. Richardson and S.J. Ferguson (2003) Characterisation of the expression and activity of the periplasmic nitrate reductase of Paracoccus pantotrophus in chemostat cultures. Microbiology 149: 1533-1540.

Reyes-Ramirez, F., P. Dobbin, G. Sawers and D.J. Richardson (2003) Characterisation of the transcriptional regulation of Shewanella frigidimarina iron-induced flavocytochrome c reveals a novel iron-responsive gene regulation system. J. Bacteriol. 185: 4564-4571.

Yeoman, K.H, S. Mitelheiser, G. Sawers and A.W.B. Johnston (2003) The ECF sigma factor RpoI of R. leguminosarum initiates transcription of the vbsGSO and vbsADL siderophore biosynthetic genes in vitro. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 223: 239-244.


Ellis, M.J., M. Prudêncio, F.E. Dodd, R.W. Strange, G. Sawers, R.R. Eady and S.S Hasnain (2002) Biochemical and crystallographic studies of the Met144Ala, Asp92Asn and His254Phe mutants of nitrite reductase from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans provide insight into the enzyme mechanism. J. Mol. Biol. 316: 51-64.

Carter, R.A., K.H. Yeoman, A. Klein, A.F.H. Hosie, G. Sawers, P.S. Poole and A.W.B. Johnston (2002) dpp genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum specify uptake of gamma-amino-levulinic acid. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 15: 69-74.

Wyborn, N.R., S.L. Messenger, G. Sawers, R.E. Roberts, M.M. Attwood, and J. Green (2002) Expression of the Escherichia coli yfiD gene responds to intracellular pH, and reduces the accumulation of acidic metabolic end-products. Microbiology 148: 1015-1026.

Prudencio, M., G. Sawers, S.A. Fairhurst, F. Yousafzai and R.R. Eady (2002) Alcaligenes xylosoxidans dissimilatory nitrite reductase: alanine substitution of the surface-exposed histidine-139 ligand of the type 1 copper center prevents electron transfer to the catalytic center. Biochemistry 41: 3430-3438.

Richardson, D. and G. Sawers (2002) Structural biology – PMF through the redox loop. Science 295: 1842-1843.

Carter, R.J., P.S. Worsley, G. Sawers, G.L. Challis, M.J. Dilworth, K.C. Carson, J.A. Lawrence, M. Wexler, A.W.B. Johnston and K.H. Yeoman (2002) The vbs genes that direct synthesis of the siderophore vicibactin in Rhizobium leguminosarum: their expression in other genera requires the ECF sigma factor RpoI. Mol. Microbiol. 44: 1153-1166.

Ellington M.J.K., K.K. Bhakoo, G. Sawers, D.J. Richardson and S.J. Ferguson (2002) Hierarchy of carbon source selection in Paracoccus pantotrophus: strict correlation between reduction state of the carbon substrate and aerobic expression of the nap operon. J. Bacteriol. 184: 4767-4774.

Todd, J.D., M. Wexler, G. Sawers, K.H. Yeoman, P.S. Poole and A.W.B. Johnston (2002) RirA, an iron-responsive regulator in the symbiotic bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum. Microbiology 148: 4059-4071.


Prudencio, M., R.R. Eady and G. Sawers (2001) Characterisation of the Alcaligenes xylosoxidans nitrite reductase type 2 copper centre: mutational analysis of the Asp-92 ligand. Biochem. J. 353: 259-266.

Wu, G., A. J. G. Moir, S. Hill, G. Sawers and R. K. Poole (2001) Biosynthesis of poly-beta-hydroxbutyrate is controlled by CydR (FNR) in the obligate aerobe Azotobacter vinelandii. FEMS. Lett. 194: 215-220.

Jack, R.L., Sargent, F., Berks, B.C., Sawers, G. and Palmer, T. (2001) Constitutive expression of the Escherichia coli tat genes indicates an important role for the twin-arginine translocase during aerobic and anaerobic growth. J. Bacteriol. 183: 1801-1804.

Sawers, G. (2001) A novel mechanism controls anaerobic and catabolite regulation of the Escherichia coli tdc operon. Mol. Microbiol. 39: 1285-1298.

Ellis M. J., F. E. Dodd, R. W. Strange, M. Prudêncio, G. Sawers, R. R. Eady and S. S. Hasnain (2001) X-ray structure of a blue copper nitrite reductase at high pH and in copper free form at 1.9Å resolution. Acta Crystallogr. D57: 1110-1118.

Wexler, M., K. H. Yeoman, J. B. Stevens, N. G. de Luca, G. Sawers and A. W. B. Johnston (2001) The Rhizobium leguminosarum tonB gene is required for the uptake of siderophore and haem as sources of iron. Mol. Microbiol. 41: 801-816.

Sawers, G. (2001) Amino acid degradation. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences.   .


Wu, G., H. Cruz-Ramos, S. Hill, J. Green, G. Sawers and R. K. Poole (2000) Regulation of cytochrome bd expression in the obligate aerobe Azotobacter vinelandii by CydR (Fnr): extreme sensitivity to oxygen, recative oxygen species and nitric oxide. J. Biol. Chem. 275: 4679-4686.

Alexeeva, S., B. de Kort, G. Sawers, K. J. Hellingwerf and M. J. Teixeira de Mattos (2000) Effects of limited aeration and of the ArcAB system on intermediary pyruvate catabolism in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 182: 4934-4940.

Sears, H., G. Sawers, B. C. Berks, S. J. Ferguson and D. Richardson (2000) Control of periplasmic nitrate reductase gene expression in response to oxygen and carbon substrates. Microbiology 146: 2977-2985.

Hill, S. and G. Sawers (2000) Azotobacter. Encyclopedia of Microbiology, 2nd edition Vol. 1 pp. 359-371.


Prudencio, M., R. R. Eady and G. Sawers (1999) The blue copper-containing nitrite reductase from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans: cloning of the nirA gene and characterization of the recombinant enzyme. J. Bacteriol. 181: 2323-2329.

Sawers, G. (1999) Biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology of glycyl radical enzymes. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 22: 543-551.

Hensel, M., A. P. Hinsley, T. Nikolaus, G. Sawers and B. C. Berks (1999) The genetic basis of tetrathionate respiration in Salmonella typhimurium. Mol. Microbiol. 32: 275-288.

Sawers, G. (1999) The aerobic/ anaerobic interface. Current Opin. Microbiol. 2: 181-187.

Richard, D., G. Sawers, F. Sargent and D. H. Boxer (1999) Transcriptional regulation in response to oxygen and nitrate of the operons encoding the [NiFe] hydrogenases 1 and 2 of Escherichia coli. Microbiology 145: 2903-2912.

Sawers, G. (1999) Glycyl radical enzymes and anaerobic metabolism. John Innes Centre and Sainsbury Laboratory Annual Report 1998/ 1999, p72.


Heßlinger, C., S.A. Fairhurst and G. Sawers (1998) Novel keto acid formate-lyase and propionate kinase activities are components of an anaerobic pathway in Escherichia coli that degrades L-threonine to propionate. Mol. Microbiol. 27: 477-492.

Sawers, G. and G. Watson (1998) A glycyl radical solution: oxygen-dependent interconversion of pyruvate formate-lyase. Mol. Microbiol. 29: 945-954.

Sawers, G. (1998) The anaerobic degradation of L-serine and L-threonine in enterobacteria: networks of pathways and regulatory signals. Arch. Microbiol. 171: 1-5.

Strohmaier, H., R. Noiges, S. Kotschan, G. Sawers, G. Högenauer, E. Zechner and G. Koraimann (1998) Signal transduction and bacterial conjugation: the response regulator ArcA is required for efficient DNA transfer of the conjugative resistance plasmid R1. J. Mol. Biol. 277: 309-316.

Sawers, G., C. Heßlinger, N. Muller and M. Kaiser (1998) The glycyl radical enzyme TdcE can replace pyruvate formate-lyase in glucose fermentation. J. Bacteriol. 180: 3509-3516.

Heßlinger, C. and G. Sawers (1998) The tdcE gene in Escherichia coli strain W3110 is separated from the rest of the tdc operon by insertion of IS5 elements. DNA Sequence 9: 183-188.

Hill, S., N. Juty, E. Kavanagh, M. Merrick and G. Sawers (1998) The physiology of the cytochrome bd-type oxidase in N2-fixing free-living heterotrophs. John Innes Centre and Sainsbury Laboratory Annual Report 1997/ 1998. pp. 34-35


Kaiser, M. and G. Sawers (1997) Overlapping promoters modulate Fnr- and ArcA-dependent anaerobic transcriptional activation of the focApfl operon in Escherichia coli. Microbiology 143: 775-783.

Sawers, G., M. Kaiser, A. Sirko and M. Freundlich (1997) Transcriptional activation by FNR and CRP: reciprocity of binding-site recognition. Mol. Microbiol. 23: 835-845.

Sawers, G. (1997) Multifactorial regulation of bacterial gene expression: integration of responses to extra- and intracellular stimuli. John Innes Centre and Sainsbury Laboratory Annual Report 1996/ 1997. pp. 25-26

Wu, G., S. Hill, M.J.S. Kelly, G. Sawers and R.K. Poole (1997) The cydR gene product, required for cytochrome bd expression in the obligate aerobe Azotobacter vinelandii, is an Fnr-like protein. Microbiology 143: 2197-2207.


Weidner, G. and G. Sawers (1996) Molecular characterization of the genes encoding pyruvate formate-lyase and its activating enzyme of Clostridium pasteurianum. J. Bacteriol. 178: 2440-2444.

Böck, A. and G. Sawers (1996) Fermentation. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Molecular and Cellular Biology, 2nd Edition, (Eds. F. C. Neidhardt et al), ASM Press Chapter 18, pp. 262-282.

Sawers, G. and M. Jarsch (1996) Alternative regulation principles for the production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 46: 1-9.


Kaiser, M. and G. Sawers (1995) Nitrate repression of the Escherichia coli pfl operon is mediated by the dual sensors NarQ and NarX and dual regulators NarL and NarP. J. Bacteriol. 177: 3647-3655.

Drapal, N. and G. Sawers (1995) Purification of ArcA and analysis of its specific interaction with the pfl promoter-regulatory region. Mol. Microbiol. 16: 597-607.

Drapal, N. and G. Sawers (1995) Promoter 7 of the Escherichia coli pfl operon is a major determinant in the anaerobic regulation of expression by ArcA. J. Bacteriol. 177: 5338-5341.

Kaiser, M. and G. Sawers (1995) Fnr activates transcription from the P6 promoter of the pfl operon in vitro. Mol. Microbiol. 18: 331-342.


Sawers, G. (1994) The hydrogenases and formate dehydrogenases of Escherichia coli. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 66: 57-88.

Kaiser, M. and G. Sawers (1994) Pyruvate formate-lyase is not essential for nitrate respiration by Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 117: 163-168.

Suppmann, B. and G. Sawers (1994) Isolation and characterisation of hypophosphite-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli: identification of the FOCA protein, encoded by the pfl operon, as a putative formate transporter. Mol. Microbiol. 11: 965-982.

Sawers, G. (1993) Specific transcriptional requirements for positive regulation of the anaerobically inducible pfl operon by ArcA and FNR. Mol. Microbiol. 10: 737-747.

Sirko, A., E. Zehelein, M. Freundlich and G. Sawers (1993) Integration host factor is required for anaerobic pyruvate induction of pfl operon expression in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 175: 5769-5777.

Sawers, G. and B. Suppmann (1992) Anaerobic induction of pyruvate formate-lyase gene expression is mediated by the ArcA and FNR proteins. J. Bacteriol. 174: 3474-3478.

Böck, A., K. Forchhammer, J. Heider, W. Leinfelder, G. Sawers, B. Veprek and F. Zinoni (1991) Selenocysteine: the 21st amino acid. Mol. Microbiol. 5: 515-520.

Rossmann, R., G. Sawers and A. Böck (1991) Mechanism of regulation of the formate-hydrogenlyase pathway by oxygen, nitrate and pH: definition of the formate regulon. Mol. Microbiol. 5: 2807-2814.

Lutz, S., A. Jacobi, V. Schlensog, R. Böhm, G. Sawers and A. Böck (1991) Molecular characterisation of an operon (hyp) necessary for the activity of the three hydrogenase isoenzymes in Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 5: 123-135.

Sawers, G., J. Heider and A. Böck (1991) Expression and operon structure of the sel genes of Escherichia coli and identification of a third selenium-containing formate dehydrogenase isoenzyme. J. Bacteriol. 173: 4983-4993.

Sawers, R.G. (1991) Identification and molecular characterisation of a transcriptional regulator from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 exhibiting structural and functional similarity to the FNR protein of Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 5: 1469-1481.

Knappe, J. and G. Sawers (1990) A radical route to acetyl-CoA: the anaerobically induced pyruvate formate-lyase system of Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 75: 383-398.

Böck, A., C. Baron, K. Forchhammer, J. Heider, W. Leinfelder, G. Sawers, B. Veprek, E. Zehelein and F. Zinoni (1990) From nonsense to sense: UGA encodes selenocysteine in formate dehydrogenase and other selenoproteins. In: 41st Moosbach Colloquium, The Molecular Basis of Bacterial Metabolism. Eds. G. Hauska and R. Thauer. Springer-Verlag. pp 61-68.

Sauter, M. and R.G. Sawers (1990) Transcriptional analysis of the gene encoding pyruvate formate-lyase-activating enzyme of Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 4: 355-363.

Heider, J., K. Forchhammer, G. Sawers and A. Böck (1990) Interspecies compatibility of selenoprotein biosynthesis in Enterobacteriaceae. Arch. Microbiol. 155: 221-228.


Sawers, G. and A. Böck (1989) Novel transcriptional control of the pyruvate formate-lyase gene: upstream regulatory sequences and multiple promoters regulate anaerobic expression. J. Bacteriol. 171: 2485-2498.

Sawers, G., A.70-sF.V. Wagner and A. Böck (1989) Transcription initiation at multiple promoters of the pfl gene by Edependent transcription in vitro and heterologous expression in Pseudomonas putida in vivo. J. Bacteriol. 171: 4930-4937.

Leinfelder, W., K. Forchhammer, F. Zinoni, G. Sawers, M. Mandrand-Berthelot and A. Böck (1988) Escherichia coli genes whose products are involved in selenium metabolism. J. Bacteriol. 170: 540-546.

Sawers, R.G., E. Zehelein and A. Böck (1988) Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of Escherichia coli proteins: influence of various anaerobic growth conditions and the fnr gene product on cellular protein composition. Arch. Microbiol. 149: 240-244.

Sawers, G. and A. Böck (1988) Anaerobic regulation of pyruvate formate-lyase from Escherichia coli K-12. J. Bacteriol 170: 5330-5336.

Birkmann, A., F. Zinoni, G. Sawers and A. Böck (1987) Anaerobic gene expression in Escherichia coli: factors affecting transcriptional regulation of the formate-hydrogen-lyase pathway. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler. 368: 1022.

Birkmann, A., F. Zinoni, G. Sawers and A. Böck (1987) Factors affecting transcriptional regulation of the formate-hydrogen-lyase pathway of Escherichia coli. Arch. Microbiol. 148: 44-51.

Birkmann, A., R.G. Sawers and A. Böck (1987) Involvement of the ntrA gene product in the anaerobic metabolism of Escherichia coli. Mol. Gen. Genet. 210: 535-542.

Sawers, R.G. and D.H. Boxer (1986) Purification and properties of membrane-bound hydrogenase isoenzyme 1 from anaerobically grown Escherichia coli K-12. Eur. J. Biochem. 156: 265-275.

Sawers, R.G., D.J. Jamieson, C.F. Higgins and D.H. Boxer (1986) Characterisation and physiological roles of membrane-bound hydrogenase isoenzymes from Salmonella typhimurium. J. Bacteriol. 168: 398-404.

Jamieson, D.J., R.G. Sawers, P. Rugman, D.H. Boxer and C.F. Higgins (1986) Effects of anaerobic regulatory mutations and catabolite repression on regulation of hydrogen metabolism and hydrogenase isoenzyme composition in Salmonella typhimurium. J. Bacteriol. 168: 405-411.

Sawers, R.G., S.P. Ballantine and D.H. Boxer (1985) Differential expression of hydrogenase isoenzymes in Escherichia coli K-12: evidence for a third isoenzyme. J. Bacteriol. 164: 1324-1331.